PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
Required Ingredients :
1) Paddy Straw : Straw of local paddy is usually good for paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Specially straw from paddy variety with white primodia, narrow, stiff and un-threshed(by bullock or tractor) is required. Paddy straw when trodden by bullocks or tractor, loose stiffness and easily rots when it comes in contact with water, gets compressed which is not good for mushroom mycelia growth. As such straw obtained through harvesting by beating the straw bundles with hand are always good for mushroom cultivation. Only the top and panicle portion is removed. Paddy straw should be harvested leaving only 4” to 6” from the ground level. This is because on fungal species is found at the base portion which caused rotting and contamination of the straw subsequently. Paddy straw from variety C.R.1014, 1242, 141, T90, is good for preparing mushroom beds.A mushroom bed of 2 feet length, 2 ft wide and 2 ft height is prepared from 10 to 20 bundles of straw as per the thickness of the straw bundles. First hold on the top of straw bundle and loosen the binding of the straw bundle by doing so the leaves come out. If leaves will remain, it will hold more water for long time and cause rotting of the straw soon.
2) Mushroom Spawn: For one bed of mushroom 350 to 400 gm of mushroom spawn (seed) required. The culture should be free from infection.
3) Nutrition : For cultivation of paddy straw mushroom, powder of bengalgram, lentil, horsegram, red gram, blackgram or green gram and wheat bran and paddy husk is used. Powder obtained from bengalgram with its seed coat gives more yield form powder of bengalgram with seed coat.
Material required to prepare one bed of Mushroom :
Straw bundle :- 15-20 bundles of straw OR 15 kg (as per thickness of bundle)
Mushroom Spawn(Seed) :- One bottle Or 350 gm
Nutrition :- 250 gm of Bengal gram or red gram
Bed Size :- 2 ft x 2 ft OR 2.5 ft x 2.5 ft
Space :- 3ft x 3ft OR 4ft x 4ft ( 10 sq ft to 16 sq. ft)
Cultivation Method :
1) Remove leaves of the straw bundle and cut to 2ft size with a straw cutter. The required number of straw bundles are soaked in a tank of clean water for 12 to 16 hours. Water from ditches, ponds etc which are dirty should not be used. At the time of soaking use 100 ml of formalin and 8 grams of bavistin per 100 liters of water. Where electric heaters are available hot water should be used for treating the straw bundles.
2) Remove the straw bundles from water and keep in standing positions for 5 to 6 hours so as to drain out the excess water from the outside and inside the straw bundles and only 75 % moisture will remain in the straw bundles.
3) Spawn of 3 to 4 weeks should be used. Break the bottle and remove the glasses. Use cotton to remove small glass piece if stick to the spawn. Divide the spawn to 4 equal parts and make small pieces of spawn having size of thumb finger.
4) Use 250 gms of Dal powder grinded from whole grain of bengalgram. Else use paddy husk or rice bran to reduce the cost of cultivation. It should also be divided to 4 equal parts.
5) After arranging straw, spawn and nutrition, prepare the beds. First put a layer of straw of 6-9 inches height. See that the bases of straw are towards outer side and top portion are inside. Let the direction of the first layer be east-west or north-south. Take one part of the spawn out of the 4 parts and put the spawn pieces on the bed leaving 3 inches from outer side and at 3-4 inches distance. Sprinkle the dal powder of Bengalgram or redgram over the spawn blocks and nearby area.
6) Over the first layer, put again 6 to 9 inches height of straw. Arrange the straw on the opposite direction of the first layer (East-west of North-south). Take of another part of spawn and put the spawn piece at a distance of 3 to 4 inches as in the first layer. Also sprinkle the dal powder over it as done previously.
7) Put the third layer of 6- 9 inches of straw in parallel direction to the 1st layer and put rest 2 parts of spawn all over the third layer and sprinkle 2 parts of Dal powder too.
8) Cover the third layer with the final 4th layer of straw of 2 inches width, parallel to the 2nd layer. Now press the layer at the top so that the mycelium can grow well. Cut the spilled straw all around the bed with the help of a seizure.
9) After the bed is ready, cover it with white polythene or stitched sheet of cement/fertilizer bags. Remove the polythene sheet each day and spray water on portion of bed where straw is dried.
10) After 9 to 10 days when mycelium growth is observed, the polythene cover is removed exposing the bed to open air. After one day of removal of sheet, water is sprayed over the bed 2-3 times a day to maintain the moisture level of the bed.
11) Harvesting : First flush of mushroom comes out after 15 days of sowing. The mushroom should be harvested at bud stage whose demand is more in the market and also tasty on cooking.
After 14-15 days first phase of harvesting is done giving 90 % of the yield. Then after 9-10 days in the second phase of harvest rest 10 % yield is obtained.
We are providing training on Mushroom Production- both Mushroom Spawn Production and Mushroom Cultivation. Some training details are below :
Training duration : 4 days
Training Charges: Rs. 10,000/- per trainee (Including lodging & fooding in Bhubaneswar )
Place of training :
Day 1 - In-house orientation 1 day at Bhubaneswar
Day-2 - Orientation-cum-demonstration at laboratory condition, Bhubaneswar
Day-3 - Demonstration at two other small scale spawn unit by individual entrepreneur nearby Bhubaneswar (20 km), Orissa, INDIA
Day-4 - Recap, Question and Clarification Session, Planning for Mushroom cultivation and Spawn (seeds) Unit set up for trainees.
Advance Registration Amount :- INR Rs. 2000.00
Number of trainees per batch : 15-20 trainees
Those interested in training, fill up the form above or contact us in the address, mail & phone number given in side bar at top right side.
Field Training or Onsite training:
We provide field/onsite training to cultivar groups, associations, SHGs, Organisations or Institutions on payment of Resource Person charges of Rs.2000/- per person per day and other touring expenses.(Services inside Odisha and neighbouring states only)
Unlike agriculture, mushroom seed (Spawn) production involves sophisticated technology with high investment requiring laboratory and equipments with accessories. The major constraint in mushroom production is nonavailability of spawn. The technology of spawn production is given by Eco-care and Aware. Three roomed house with some equipments, furniture, glasswares, chemicals and some other accessories are required to start spawn lab. Keeping in view of demand for mushroom, it is urgently needed to have one spawn lab in each block. If 50 to 100 mushroom growers will be developed in a cluster of villages to grow minimum one quintal to two quintals of mushroom per day, one spawn unit can be set up there to feed the spawn to these mushroom growers. Each spawn producer should have its own mushroom production farm to know the efficacy of his own spawn as well as demonstrate the mushroom production technology to others which will promote the sale of spawn. By this both spawn unit and mushroom farm will be economically viable.
(1) To produce 200 spawn bottles from two shift i.e. 5,000 bottles of spawn assuming 25 working days per month.
(2) To create income of Rs. 30,000/- per month from spawn & mushroom farm.
REQUIREMENT FOR SPAWN UNIT
A. Land and building
Four roomed building will be essential to state spawn lab. one room will be used to multiply fungus which is called “inoculation chamber” with another room will be devoted to prepare media for culture tube an spawn bottle or which it is called media room. It can be used as media for culture tube an spawn bottle or which it is called media room. It can be used as media cum office room. Fourth room will be kept as store room. The incubation chamber will be air tight fitted with light and U.V. Light. The maintenance of aseptic condition in inoculation chamber is must for production of quality spawn. Initially incubation chamber can be made in ordinary room keeping some iron rocks to accommodate spawn bottles. After wards air conditioning machine can be fitted to maintain desired temperature.
1. Total Plinth area of spawn Lab – 25' × 12' = 300sq. ft.
2. Inoculation chamber - 8' × 7' = 56 sq. ft.
3. Ante room - 4' × 7' = 28 sq. ft.
4. Incubation Chamber - 12' × 8' = 96 sq. ft.
5. Office cum Media room - 10' × 8' = 80 sq. ft.
6. Store room - 10' × 4' = 40 sq. ft.
B. Equipment and Machineries
(a) Auto clave :
One autoclaves are required to sterilize the media in culture tube and wheat medium in spawn bottles.(operated by both electricity and gas)
(b) Furniture : To keep spawn bottle or pouches, some iron racks are needed in incubation chamber. One table, with two stools are to be kept in inoculation chamber. One long table will be kept in media room along with some stools.
(c) Accessories :
(i) Weighing balance will be useful for weighing the chemicals required for preparing media and for spawn production.
(ii) Chula with cylinder : To boil wheat and to prepare media for culturing. Chula with Cylinder are necessary.
(d) Glass wares, chemicals and raw materials : culture tube, innoculation needle, measuring cylinder, dextrose, plastic busket, Agar agar, Formaldehyde, Cotton, Wheat.